Table of Contents
Types of Keyboards
Common Keyboard Features
Getting Started Playing the Piano
MIDI Controller Keyboards
Types of Keyboards
Understanding what each type of keyboard and piano is intended for and capable of can be confusing. Given the large number of products in each of the keyboard categories at Musician's Friend, it's important to have a clear idea of what you're shopping for before you get started.
Common Keyboard Features
There are many features and terms common to all or most categories of keyboards. These are basics that you should familiarize yourself with before getting into the specific features of each keyboard category. Also check the glossary at the end of this buyer’s guide for help with keyboard-related terms you’re unfamiliar with.
Number of keys: Keyboards are available with various numbers of keys, ranging from 25 on small MIDI controllers up to 88, just like on a traditional acoustic piano. Things to consider when deciding how many keys are right for you are space restrictions and the types of music you'll be playing.
Action: You will come across various terms relating to the response of the keybed. Weighted, semi-weighted, synth, and hammer action each offer a different feel. Weighted and semi-weighted actions have a response similar to a traditional piano. Hammer action adds actual mechanical hammers to enhance this response even more. Synth action is more like an organ; there is no resistance and the keys can be played very quickly. If you're accustomed to the feel of a piano, you'll want a keybed that's weighted or semi-weighted, and perhaps with hammer action if you really want a true piano feel. If you're the type of player who plays a lot of fast lead passages, a synth-action keybed will probably suit your needs better.
Touch or velocity sensitivity: The ability of a keyboard to sense the force or speed with which a key is pressed and create a sound or send a MIDI message accordingly.
Polyphony: The number of sounds a keyboard can generate at one time. Keyboards with extensive polyphonic capabilities and sufficient instrument voices can mimic an entire orchestra.
Multitimbrality: The ability of a keyboard to play different sounds at once (i.e., flute, drums, strings, piano). Multitimbrality should not be confused with polyphony.
MIDI compatibility: MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) is a communication protocol established in the 1980s for electronic instruments and computers. MIDI messages contain no sounds as such, rather serving as a blueprint that tells a hardware or software instrument what notes to play and with what velocity. For example, a MIDI passage could be sent to a keyboard that in turn could play the same passage with any of the sounds available in the instrument. MIDI compatibility enables a keyboard to send and receive MIDI messages.
Computer connectivity: Today's keyboards can connect to a computer in a variety of ways. USB, FireWire, MIDI, S/PDIF, mLAN, and other types of interfaces, either external or built into a keyboard, are ways for computers and keyboards to communicate. Most digital keyboards include a USB and/or MIDI host port for easy connectivity. Increasingly, keyboards also offer iOS capabilities that give you access to a world of performance, practice and recording apps as well as cloud-based storage and musical collaborations using your tablet or smartphone. Also see Input/Output.
Sequencer: A hardware or software device that records MIDI performance data and plays it back in a user-programmed sequence. Think of it as a 21st-century player piano.
Arpeggiator: An arpeggio is a chord whose notes are played in succession rather than all at once. An arpeggiator electronically creates an arpeggio when a single note is played on the keyboard.
Sampler: A device that records digital audio and allows it to be altered and played back in various ways. If you plan to incorporate external audio clips into your music, you'll definitely want a keyboard with built-in sampling capabilities.
Input/output: The input and output section of a keyboard is something you'll want to consider before buying. If you plan to use your keyboard as a digital audio workstation, having audio ins/outs can save you from having to purchase a separate interface. Audio outputs that connect to external amplifiers, mixers, and speakers are a must if you plan to play live with your keyboard.
Controllers: The amount of control a keyboard offers depends greatly on what you'll be doing with it. For synths, you'll at least want pitch and modulation wheels. As you get into working with MIDI, you may want to have knobs and sliders as well, especially if you're shopping for a MIDI controller. Many keyboards offer visual displays—some with touch capability—to give you more control and ease of use.
Storage: Most keyboards offer external storage options including flash drives, Secure Digital, Compact Flash and SmartMedia card slots. With USB connectivity, you can easily transfer data between your computer and other USB-enabled devices as well as store files in the cloud.
Synthesizers are keyboards that for the most part just produce sounds. Most synthesizers today use sample-based synthesis—that is, they use pre-recorded sounds as opposed to analog synths that manipulate electrical signals to create their sounds. In the past few years, analog synths have experienced a bit of a renaissance, owing to their unique sound, and (typically) knob-per-function control. AThe technology of analog synthesizers has improved greatly over the years, and they have distinct sounds that many players demand, although many digital synths emulate them with great accuracy. Sample-based synths generally provide a larger sound set, including piano, organ, horns, strings, and even digital re-creations of classic analog synths. Some synths offer basic sequencing and step-sequence functions as well.
Korg's microKORG synthesizer offers 128 inspiring preset sounds, a deep synth engine and a great sounding vocoder.
The first thing you should do before shopping for a synthesizer is define your needs. What style of music do you play? How many keys will be sufficient for you? What sounds are most important to your style? A keyboard player in a metal band will obviously have different answers than someone in a country-western band. Sound clips for many of the synthesizers are available for online preview to help you get an idea of their preset sounds. It's also important to decide what your budget will be for your synth. Thanks to technological advances, even less-expensive synths come with quality soundsets and keyboard action. So there are plenty of synths to choose from if you don't have tons of money to spend.
With its robust mixing section, monophonic or duo-paraphonic performance options and a fully analog sound source, the Moog Subsequent 37 synthesizer will please old-school electronic musicians while delivering modern programming capability.
Synthesizers include a number of sounds built into the keyboard, right out of the box. Some sounds are entirely sample based, while others are simply a set of saved settings for the synth's oscillators, filters, envelopes and more. If you are the kind of player who just wants to plug in and start playing, then you'll want a synth with a lot of presets. If you'd rather create your own unique sounds, be sure to select a synth with plenty of user patch locations (memory slots that allow you to save your sonic creations).
The Sub Phatty 25-Key Analog Synth delivers genuine, vintage Moog sound while its 31 knobs and 13 switch controls offer a vast palette for audio creativity.
Other Things to Look for When Shopping for a Synthesizer
Check the ROM capacity; more is better in terms of saving and expanding sounds. As noted above, things like weighted keys, and high-polyphony counts make the synth more playable, powerful and versatile.
Envelope controls let you tailor the attack, sustain, decay, and release time of a sound. A low-frequency oscillator, or LFO, allows you to alter various parameters of a tone. For example, applying the LFO to a tone's pitch creates a vibrato effect. A synthesizer's filter section can be used to remove certain frequencies from a sound and change its timbre. Many synthesizers also have built-in effects like reverb, delay, chorus, and more. If you enjoy pushing the sonic boundaries with what you play, then these are features you'll want to look for in your purchase.
The Montage Series synths from Yamaha represent the state of the art when it comes to creating powerful and enveloping textures that are beyond the reach of ordinary synths.
A keyboard workstation can be thought of as a miniature composing, recording, and production studio. Most workstations have a number of recording features, such as the ability to record audio, an internal hard drive, multitrack recording, built-in CD burners, etc. Workstations are the pinnacle of the professional keyboard world, and will provide the experienced songwriter or producer with the tools needed to craft, record, edit, and finalize songs.
In choosing a workstation, it's important to be sure it provides enough polyphony to handle the passages you'll play and record. When doing multitrack sequencing, the notes on any track are subtracted from the workstation's total polyphony. The more notes the unit can handle, the more you'll be able to make good use of its recording and sequencing capabilities.
The Korg Kronos gives you spectacular piano sounds along with a host of other quality voices thanks to its multi-engine architecture.
The sound sets in most workstations rival those of the top synthesizers. Manufacturers understand that the device will be used for composing and recording, so they tend to load them up with massive sound libraries. You'll typically find a huge array of instruments, such as pianos, guitars, horns, strings, drums, and more. This, of course, lends itself to the workstation being a complete studio-in-a-box.
Computer connectivity is an important function to have in a workstation too, as it allows you to easily sync your workstation with computer recording software. Most workstations come with MIDI and/or USB connections, and some incorporate an mLAN interface that handles MIDI and audio data transfers to and from other devices in your recording network via a FireWire cable. Workstations usually provide audio inputs as well so you can record instruments directly.
With over 1,600 sounds, a 16-track song recorder and 256-note polyphony, the Yamaha GENOS Arranger Workstation offers the best of workstation and arranger functionality in a very impressive package.
Trigger pads are a valuable feature if you want quick access to notes or samples. Hip-hop and modern R&B producers tend to like them for laying down quick beats and loops, though they can be used in a variety of situations.
Some workstations also incorporate a sampler. Having a sampler means you can import any digitized sound you can think of and put it to use in your music—a worthwhile feature if you like to experiment with sounds outside the realm of standard instruments.
Workstations are powerful instruments designed primarily for players who are experienced with sequencing and recording. Chances are if you are shopping for your first keyboard, a workstation might be a little over your head. That's where our next category comes in.
If a workstation can be viewed as a studio, an arranger can be compared to a songwriting partner. Arrangers are portable-style keyboards with professional sound engines and a number of compositional tools to enhance the songwriting process. Sometimes referred to as a band-in-a box, an arranger provides the sounds and sequencing tools necessary to flesh out an idea and create a full-fledged song. Arrangers are also powerful instruments for live performance, and often the instrument of choice for one-man bands.
There is practically no style, sound or feel left uncovered by the Korg Pa700 Arranger Keyboard.
While most arrangers do have great sound engines, the scope of available sounds typically isn't as broad as that of a workstation. Arrangers offer a good selection of the main sounds you'll need for a live-band type of feel, such as drums, piano, organ, horns, etc.
Arrangers offer a number of styles (backing accompaniments) that let you tailor the instrument to your particular brand of music. This means you can plug in your chord progression, choose the style you're after, and you'll instantly have a jazz, rock, Latin, or other type of feel to the music with a full band behind it. This is a huge advantage for both composers and live performers.
Arrangers can also be powerful learning tools that familiarize you with the sounds and patterns of various styles of music. Because they are more automated than workstations, arrangers can help you work backwards through a particular style to fully understand all its elements. If workstations and arrangers were automobiles, the former would have a manual transmission, the latter an automatic.
Portable keyboards are generally oriented toward beginning players. The sequencing functions are more basic than those of an arranger, and most include learning functions that help beginners find their way around the keyboard and sequencer.
Many portables also feature USB connectivity for transferring sounds to and from your computer or the Internet, saving projects, or even downloading songs for karaoke. If you're a beginning player, or perhaps you play another instrument and would like to have a keyboard to learn or experiment with, a portable is the way to go, as they deliver great bang for the buck and provide fun and entertainment as you learn.
Getting Started Playing the Piano
As noted above, many portable keyboards include tools to help you learn to play piano. While having a professional teacher or pianist friend is an optimal way to learn, there are many other resources available to help keyboard students develop their skills for a lifetime of satisfaction and fun. These include a myriad of teaching methods, books, CDs, and DVDs, all aimed at building your piano skills. You’ll find age-specific tutorials and piano methods that are specifically designed for kids or adults. Many have simplified chord-based approaches that will have you playing songs in no time. Some of the piano courses we sell at Musician’s Friend are made up of multiple volumes, building your skills in logical steps as you graduate from absolute beginner to advancing player to an accomplished keyboardist seeking to refine your piano mastery.
For more, read The Best Keyboards and Pianos for Beginners.
Digital pianos can be divided into two categories depending on their intended use. Console pianos are generally intended for use in the home, while stage pianos are designed for the performing musician who needs something more portable. The major difference in these categories is the exterior design, as many stage and home pianos share the same electronic “guts” and sounds. Console pianos incorporate not only the sounds of a piano, but traditional cabinet design elements as well. Console pianos are an ideal choice for the home.
The Williams Rhapsody 2 Digital Piano packs a sweet selection of pianos and other instruments beneath its sleek, decor-friendly cabinet.
Take a guided tour highlighting all the Williams Rhapsody 2’s functions and sounds Then check the price—you’ll be pleasantly surprised.
Important elements to consider when buying a digital piano are the responsiveness of the keys, its sound quality, the amplifier and speaker system, and the design that best fits your needs. Many digital pianos include comprehensive learning systems that make them ideal for beginning keyboardists.
The hammer-action keybed on the Casio Privia PX-360 digital piano will satisfy just about any pianists need for excellent note response and feedback.
As stated earlier, weighted keybeds will provide a more realistic piano feel as you play. Adding hammer action to this equation simulates a traditional piano’s feel even more closely, making the transition between digital and acoustic pianos easier. Most digital piano have 88 keys, just like their acoustic counterparts, though a few are equipped with 61 keys.
The sound a digital piano produces is dependent upon the samples that are embedded within. Most digital pianos get their samples from high-end acoustic pianos, so they all generally will produce quality sounds. Many manufacturers offer sound clips of their pianos. Listening closely for nuances like the sustain and decay of the instrument's sound will help you pick a piano with satisfying sound quality.
Amplification is another important consideration when shopping for a digital piano for home use. If space is a concern, be sure to select a piano with an internal amplifier and speakers. Musician's Friend has a big selection of keyboard amplifiers if you think an external amplifier will better suit your needs.
If you’re looking for a stage piano to use in performance, you’ll probably want output options to connect to either an external keyboard amplifier or sound system.
Anyone who has dragged a classic Hammond B3 organ and its hefty Leslie speakers to a gig knows what a hernia-inducing experience that can be. The good news for today’s organ players is that modern electric organs can capture the retro sound of old Hammonds and Wurlitzers without breaking your back (or wallet). The best modern organs replicate subtle nuances of old-school organs right down to the sound of their key-thunk! Most organs today use digital modeling, but incorporate drawbars like a traditional organ to change the sound. Digital organs also have features like effects, pitch bend and modulation wheels, and MIDI compatibility.
The Hammond Sk1 Organ conjures up the sounds and feel of the classic B3 while also offering capabilities and voices undreamed of by old-school organists. At 15 lb., it has great potential as a stage organ that won’t break your back.
Keyboard MIDI Controllers
Before buying a MIDI controller, it's important to define what you need to control, and how much control you need. While MIDI controllers come in different forms, the most common ones have keys. Keyboard-style MIDI controllers can have varying numbers of keys and different response characteristics such as velocity-sensitivity (the keys respond to the speed with which they're pressed), weighted (more realistic, piano-type feel), and aftertouch (allows additional parameters to be assigned to a key such as vibrato or filter sweeps).
Novation Launchkey MIDI controller integrates with Mac, PCs, and iPads and works seamlessly with all major DAWs.
MIDI Control Surfaces
Not all MIDI controllers have keyboards. They come in various forms including drum pads, control surfaces (for controlling a software mixer, for example), wind controllers, and combination controllers with keys, knobs, and sliders. The first question to ask yourself when considering a MIDI controller is "What will I be controlling?" The answer to this question will largely dictate the kind of controller you need, and what sort of features and controls it will offer. For example, if you plan on doing mostly synth work (with a software synth like Reason, for example), you will want a keyboard-style controller with your preferred keybed action. From there, you can decide whether additional buttons, sliders, or trigger pads are necessary for your setup. With the power that software synths, sequencers, and recording programs offer these days, many players are opting for a robust computer setup with a comprehensive MIDI controller. Others opt for mobile solutions using a control surface as a more hands-on way to control iOS and Android music-production apps.
The Native Instruments MASCHINE MK3 combines sample slicing, arranger, mixer, and effects with industry-standard groove box workflow for intuitive creativity. Even better - it doubles as an audio interface.
For a deeper dive into MIDI, read our tech tip IntiMIDIdated by MIDI? A Quick Start Guide to Harnessing its Power.
By now you should have a pretty good idea of the important things to look for when considering a keyboard or digital piano. Armed with that information, you’re now better equipped to find the right gear to match your needs and budget.
We want you to be pleased with your keyboard purchase, and offer a 100% satisfaction guarantee and generous return policy so you can order with confidence.
The following are some common terms you will encounter when shopping for your keyboard, piano, or synthesizer. Use this glossary as a reference while you browse Musician's Friend's huge selection of synths, workstations, MIDI controllers, portable keyboards, arrangers, and digital pianos.
A/D and D/A conversion » The process of converting an analog signal to a digital one (A/D) or a digital signal to an analog one (D/A).
Aftertouch » A control activated by pushing a key past the point where the note sounds.
Arpeggiator » A keyboard function that generates an arpeggio when a single note is played.
Assignable » The ability to have a keyboard control affect specified parameters selected by the user.
Auto-accompaniment » A keyboard feature that plays backing performances, often made up of a number of instruments.
Bit depth » The number of bits captured in one sample, or slice, of an audio signal as it is converted from analog to digital by an A/D converter. Measured in bits and represented as 16-bit, 24-bit, 32-bit, 48-bit, etc. Higher bit depths usually produce higher quality sound.
CompactFlash » A memory storage system developed by SanDisk that uses small cards to transfer data to and from compatible devices.
Damper pedal » A pedal that, when pressed, maintains a note's sustain until released.
DSP » Digital signal processing. The means by which most keyboards produce effects, equalization, filters, etc. that can be applied to an audio signal.
Effects » Processes that modify a tone or tones, such as reverb, delay, vibrato, etc.
Envelope » An electronic circuit that changes a selected setting by a desired amount at certain intervals. Commonly used to alter basic waveform pitch settings.
Filter » An electronic circuit that alters a tone by removing specific frequencies.
FireWire » A high-speed connection protocol developed by Apple that is similar to USB but much faster.
Hammer action » A keybed that uses small hammers to trigger notes in an effort to re-create the feel of an acoustic piano.
Keybed » The keys of a keyboard and their underlying mechanisms.
Low-frequency oscillator (LFO) » An inaudible oscillator that alters basic settings of a waveform to create unique effects like vibrato or tremolo.
Layer » A keyboard function that lets you create a sound by layering several different tones.
MIDI » Acronym for Musical Instrument Digital Interface. A protocol that allows musical instruments and digital devices to communicate. GM is short for General MIDI, a music industry standard since 1991 that ensures consistent performance on all GM-compatible instruments and standardized sounds and locations. GM2 is an extension of GM that requires 32-voice polyphony (instead of 24 for GM) and includes more programs.
mLAN » A network protocol designed by Yamaha for transmitting digital audio and MIDI data among a number of devices using a FireWire cable.
Modulation wheel (mod wheel) » A keyboard controller that can alter various elements of a tone.
Multitimbrality » The ability of a keyboard to play different sounds at once, i.e. flute, drums, strings, piano, etc. Multitimbrality should not be confused with polyphony.
Oscillator » The sound-producing device in an analog synth.
Pitch bend wheel » A keyboard controller that alters the pitch of the note being played up or down.
Polyphony » The number of tones a keyboard can produce at once.
Rhythms » Beats that are built into a keyboard in various musical styles.
Sample rate » The number of times an audio signal is measured (sampled) per second as it is converted from analog to digital by an A/D converter. Measured in kHz and represented as 44.1kHz, 48kHz, 88kHz, 96kHz, etc. The higher the sample the greater the musical fidelity.
Sampler » A device that records digital audio and allows it to be altered and played back in various ways.
Sequencer » A hardware or software device that records MIDI performance data and plays it back in a user-programmed sequence.
SmartMedia » A memory storage system developed by Toshiba that uses small cards to transfer data to and from compatible devices. Similar to CompactFlash, but SmartMedia cards are smaller.
Sostenuto pedal » A keyboard pedal that mimics the pedal of the same name found on grand pianos. It sustains only the notes that are being held down when the pedal is pressed.
Split » A keyboard function that allows the user to divide the keybed into different sections and assign various tones to each one.
Style » A musical passage, complete with many instruments, built into a keyboard.
Tones (waveforms) » The sounds that a synthesizer or other keyboard produces. Waveforms have different shapes that give them unique tonal properties. The most common shapes are sawtooth, square, and sine.
Touch sensitivity » The ability of a keybed to respond to various player actions, such as the velocity with which keys are pressed and the amount of pressure placed on the key. These elements are designed to replicate the feel of acoustic piano keys.
USB » Universal serial bus. A common connection protocol for computers. Many keyboards provide a USB connection to transfer data to and from a computer.
Weighted/semi-weighted » A weighted keybed provides resistance in order to replicate the feel of a piano.